The Use of Highly Porous Cellular Carbon to Replace Defects after the Removal of Diseased Bone from Children

Nikolay Belokrylov, Aleksandr Sotin, Alexei Belokrylov

Perm State Medical University named after Academician E.A. Wagner, Perm, Russia; Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, Russia; Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital, Perm, Russia

Cite: Belokrylov N., Sotin A., Belokrylov A. The Use of Highly Porous Cellular Carbon to Replace Defects after the Removal of Diseased Bone from Children. Digital Science. DSIC 2023, 26-39. 2023.

Abstract. The results of surgical treatment of 8-16-year-old children with extensive bone defects after pathological tissue resection with the use of high-porosity cellular carbon in isolation (9 patients) and in combination with autografts (3 patients) are presented. Children with lesions of long bone segments – the tibia, humerus, and femur (10 patients) predominated. The Musculo Skeletal Tumor Society Score was used as the basis for outcome assessment, and clinical and radiological data were assessed. The results in 100% of treated patients were rated as good in terms of 7 to 12 years after surgery. There were no complications in the operated patients. The efficacy of treatment according to the ISOLS system was + 56.8% after treatment in the group after carbon plastic surgery, the postoperative score became higher by more than 1.5 times, there were no recurrences of the defects, full integration of the implanted materials with good clinical and radiological results were registered. High-porous cellular carbon is suitable for effective plasty of bone defects in children and when properly applied leads to good results and no complications.

Keywords: bone replacement materials, high-porous cellular carbon, tumor and tumor-like diseases.


This research was funded by Ministry of science and higher education of the Russian Federation (Project № FSNM- 2023-0003).


  1. Kasymov, I.A. Osteoplastic surgery in children with bone pathology. Doctor of Medical Sciences, Priorov CITO, Moscow, 2000 (in Russian).
  2. Gubin, A.V. Bone grafting with allogeneic fetografts in spine surgery in children (experimental clinical study). Ph.D. in Medicine, Saint-Petersburg State Pediatric Medical Academy, Saint-Petersburg, 2001 (in Russian).
  3. Germanov, V.G.; Kavalersly, G.M.; Cherkashina, Z.A.; Semenov, V.A. Osteoplastic surgery: from a bony graft to modern biocompositional materials. Medical care 2006, 4, 16–19 (in Russian).
  4. Slizovskiy, G.V.; Sitko, L.A.; Kuzhelivskiy, I.I. Surgical treatment of distrophical bone kists by titanium nikelid porous materials in children. Bulletin of Siberian Medicine 2015, 14(2), 42–46 (in Russian),
  5. Drouzhinina, T.V.; Khlousov, I.A.; Karlov, A.V.; Rostovtsev, A.V. Osteogenesis markers in peripheral blood as pathogenetic factors and predictors of the systemic effects of implants for osteosynthesis. Orthopaedic Genius 2007, 4, 83–88 (in Russian).
  6. Makarova, E.B.; Zacharov, Yu.M.; Rubshtein, A.P. Features of bone metabolic processes when using composite porous titanium implants with diamond-like nanocoating. Orthopaedic Genius 2012, 3, 147–149 (in Russian).
  7. Chernov, A.V.; Irianov, Yu.M.; Radchenko, S.A.; Chernov, V.F.; Irianova, T.Yu. Studying the integration features of different biomaterials in organism soft and bone tissues. Orthopaedic Genius 2012, 1, 105–109 (in Russian).
  8. Reznik, L.B.; Stasenko, I.V.; Negrov, D.A. Results of using various types of implants in experimental management of long bone osteomyelitic defects. Orthopaedic Genius 2016, 4, 81–87 (in Russian),
  9. Reznik, L.B.; Erofeev, S.A.; Stasenko, I.V.; Borzunov, D.Yu. Morphological assessment of osteointegration of various implants for management of long bone defects (experimental study). Orthopaedic Genius 2019, 25(3), 318–323 (in Russian),
  10. Alekseeva, N.V.; Pichugina, U.V.; Martinovich, V.V.; Jakovlev, A.B.; Zilbert, L.A. Comparative evaluation of surgical and conservative treatment of cysts. Traumatology and orthopedics of russia 2000, 2–3, 14–19 (in Russian).
  11. Тalashova, I.A.; Grebneva, O.L. Calcium-phosphate materials in reconstructive-and-restorative surgery. Orthopaedic Genius 2002, 4, 129–134 (in Russian).
  12. Tatarenko-Kozmina, T.Yu. The role of modern biostable composites in combination with cellular technologies in the repair of bone defects. Fundamental research 2006, 3, 41–42 (in Russian),
  13. Pitkevich, Yu.E.; Malanin, D.A.; Snigur, G.L.; Derevyanko, I.V.; Cherezov, L.L. Regeneration of osteochondral lesions in the knee joint after their plasty with a composite preparation based on hydroxyapatite and collagen. Bulletin of the Volgograd Scientific Center of the RAMS 2007, 1, 23–27 (in Russian).
  14. Talashova, I.A. Blood serum protein composition in experimental animals under the implantation of the biocomposites of calcium phosphate. Orthopaedic Genius 2007, 2, 14–17 (in Russian).
  15. Ivanov, S.Yu.; Larionov, E.V.; Murayev, A.A.; Smeshko, N.V. Modern trends in the development of osteoplastic biocomposite materials. Nizhny Novgorod Medical Journal 2008, 2, 244–247 (in Russian).
  16. Ardashev, I.P.; Chernitsov, V.T.; Podorozhnaya, V.T.; Kirilova, I.Yu.; Afonin, E.A.; Veretelnikova, I.Yu. Biocompositional and osteoplastic materials for intervertebral bone block formation. Orthopaedic Genius 2010, 1, 12–18 (in Russian).
  17. Yumashev, G.S.; Lavrov, I.N., Kostikov, V.I. Application of Carbon Materials in Medicine: Literature Review. Orthopaedics, traumatology and prosthetics 1983, 5, 62–64(in Russian).
  18. Shevchenko, S.D.; Rolik, A.V.; Pankov, E.Ya. Electrical stimulation of regeneration during bone replacement with carbon implants. Orthopaedics, traumatology and prosthetics 1988, 7, 32–34 (in Russian).
  19. Skryabin, V.L.; Ladeyschikov, V.M.; Denisov, A.S. Usage of hydroxyapatite and porous carbon for replacing large defects of spongy bone tissue. Kazan Medical Journal 2010, 91, 552–555 (in Russian).
  20. Elovikov, A.M. Plastic surgery of bone defects and cavities with structures made of carbon-carbon material “Uglekon-M” during surgical interventions on the paranasal sinuses. Ph.D. in Medicine, Perm State Medical Academy, Perm, 2003 (in Russian).
  21. Belokrylov, A.N. Surgical aspects of the replacement of benign cystic bone defects in childhood. Ph.D. in Medicine, Perm State Medical University named after Academician E.A. Wagner, Perm, 2017(in Russian).
  22. Mushkin, M.A.; Pershin, A.A.; Kirillova, E.S.; Mushkin, A.Yu. The comparative x-ray analysis of osteoreparation after radical-and-restorative surgeries made using different plastic materials in children with destructive bone involvements. Orthopaedic Genius 2012, 1, 102–105 (in Russian).
  23. Lloyd, E.; Lederman, W. (Eds.) Handbook of Applied Statistics. Volume 2; Finance and Statistics: Moscow, Russia, 1990 (in Russian).
  24. Zabolotko, N.V; Razova, K.K. Complications after taking an autograft from the iliac wing. Scientist (Russia) 2019, 4(10), 8–12 (in Russian).
  25. Savincev, A.M.; Sorokin, I.V. The use of nanostructured carbon implants in the surgical treatment of transverse flatfoot. Bulletin of the North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov 2020, 12(1), 45–52 (in Russian),
  26. Kolbovskiy, D.A.; Kolesov, S.V.; Shvets, V.V.; Rerikh, V.V.; Vishnevsky, A.A.; Skorina, I.V.; Kaz’min, A.I.; Morozova, N.S.; Pereverzev, V.S.; Khit’ M.A. Osteoconductive properties of carbon fibre implants used in surgery of spine injuries and disorders (case report). Orthopaedic Genius 2018, 24(2), 229–233 (in Russian),
  27. Denisov, A.S.; Skriabin, V.L.; Bulatov, S.B.; Tikhomirov, D.A.; Kamayeva, E.S. Surgical treatment of benign bone tumors using porous carbon. Orthopaedic Genius 2009, 3, 94–97 (in Russian).
  28. Kolesov, S.V.; Kolbovskiy, D.A.; Shvets, V.V.; Rerikh, V.V.; Vishnevskiy, A.V.; Morozova, N.S.; Skorina, I.V.; Gorbatyuk, D.S. Two-year results of spinal fracture treatment using carbon implants (Multicenter study). Orthopaedic Genius 2019, 25(3), 360–367 (in Russian),
  29. Belokrylov, N.M.; Sotin, A.V.; Demidov, F.A.; Belokrylov, A.N. Mathematical modeling of destructive and cystic tumor-like processes in the proximal femur. Perm Medical Journal 2014, 31(1), 109–115 (in Russian).
  30. Gitman, M.B.; Skriabin, V.L.; Sotin, A.V.; Stolbov, V.Yu.; Batin, S.E. Methods for complex assessment of operational life of the functional material in hip replacement. Report 1Russian Journal of Biomechanics 2017, 21(4), 365–375,

Published online 05.11.2023